Saturday, April 22, 2017

A Year Later, the 7th Party Congress Continues
Comandante en Jefe Fidel Castro at the close of the 7th Congress of the Communist Party of Cuba, alongside Army General Raúl Castro, José Ramón Machado Ventura, and Miguel Díaz-Canel Bermúdez. Photo: Estudio Revolución

A year ago, the undefeated Comandante en Jefe of the Cuban Revolution, Fidel Castro Ruz, left us a testament and a political duty: “working with fervor and dignity, can produce the material and cultural wealth that humans need, and we must fight relentlessly to obtain these”

Author: Oscar Sánchez Serra | informacion@granma.cu
April 19, 2017 13:04:23

A year ago, the undefeated Comandante en Jefe of the Cuban Revolution, Fidel Castro Ruz, left us a testament and a political duty: “working with fervor and dignity, can produce the material and cultural wealth that humans need, and we must fight relentlessly to obtain these.”

Fidel immediately followed this by expressing to the peoples of the world, just as José Martí spoke of the importance of Cuban independence, on May 18, 1895: “To our brothers in Latin America and the world we must convey that the Cuban people will overcome.”

Today, we are also celebrating 56 years since the victory on the sands of Playa Girón against imperialist aggression and in defense of our socialist Revolution, with Fidel leading the action in the theater of operations.

On April 19, 2016, Army General Raúl Castro Ruz closed the 7th Party Congress stating: “I believe it is appropriate to recall that the process of updating our economic model, which we initiated at the 6th Congress, is not a task of one or two five-year periods. The course has been charted,” Raúl stated then, recalling that the next five years would be decisive “to guaranteeing the gradual, well-ordered transfer of the principal responsibility for the country to younger generations, a process of special importance which we hope to carry out and conclude with the holding of the 8th Congress in 2021.”

The first 12 months of those five years demonstrate the motives for defending our socialism.

At the end of 2015, given financial constraints due to the decline in the prices of Cuba’s principal exports and the effects on cooperative relations with other countries, a complex economic situation loomed. In July of last year, Raúl reported the decline of fuel supplies and the worsening of financial tensions, which led to a decrease of 0.9% in the island’s Gross Domestic Product.

However, Cubans, under the leadership of our Party and the protections offered by our socialist system, have continued to enjoy free social services - education and health for the entire population - there has been no return to the blackouts of the early 1990s, and the process of updating our economic model has continued. All this in the context of the same cruel and illegal U.S. economic, commercial and financial blockade, which has not diminished at all, and continues to prevent Cuba from carrying out international transactions in U.S. dollars, which thwarts the advance of many important and prospective business ventures.

As if that were not enough, after the 7th Party Congress, on October 4-5, 2016, a powerful and destructive hurricane, named Matthew, hit the eastern region of the island, causing extensive damages. But thanks to our socialist system, irreversible according to the Constitution and endorsed in each document and word spoken at the 7th Congress, we did not have to mourn the loss of a single human life. In addition, the socialist state - it is good to repeat this because only a socialist state is capable of such feats – decided to subsidize the prices of construction materials for those people whose homes had been totally or partially destroyed by 50%; granted the possibility of loans with lower interest rates and longer terms, and assumed the payment of interest in cases of total destruction of homes and roofs.

In the immediate aftermath of the 7th Congress, on April 22, May 3, 17 and 24, 2016, measures to gradually increase the purchasing power of the Cuban peso came into force. These were followed by the updating of 17 self-employment activities formerly taxed according to the general regime and moved to the simplified tax regime. Shortly before the Congress, Resolution 6 was announced to modify wage payment systems according to results applied in the Cuban enterprise system; while a measure was adopted to permit the direct wholesale of industrial gases to self-employed persons working in the auto-body repair, blacksmith and oxyacetylene cutting sectors, at the Industrial Gas Company’s territorial units.

As is known, by mandate of the 7th Congress, the historic and core documents presented at this gathering - the Conceptualization of the Cuban Economic and Social Model and the National Economic and Social Development Plan through 2030 - were put to an intense and democratic debate within the Party and youth organizations, and among representatives of mass organizations and broad sectors of society.

On July 26, 2016, during his closing remarks to commemorate National Rebellion Day, Party Central Committee Second Secretary, José Ramón Machado Ventura, noted that up until mid-June, a total of 704,643 compatriots had participated in this debate, making 359,648 interventions, including 95,482 proposals aimed, almost without exception, at enriching and further defining these documents.

Although high expectations have resulted in increasing impatience to know the results of this process, it is advancing as planned by the Party Congress. It should not be forgotten that on Tuesday, December 27, 2016, at the close of the eighth period of ordinary sessions of the Eighth Legislature of the National Assembly of People’s Power, held at the Havana International Conference Center, compañero Raúl stated: “We hope that during the course of the first half of this coming year, the Central Committee Plenum will approve both programmatic documents.”

That is to say, a year later, the 7th Party Congress continues.
Fidel’s Role in Playa Girón Recognized
Artistic performances accompanied activities to celebrate the 56th anniversary of the victory at Playa Girón. Photo: Ventura de Jesús García

Fidel’s example of integrity and morale, the determining factor in Cuba’s triumph at Playa Girón, was recognized during an act celebrating the 56th anniversary of this historic event which has come to symbolize the heroism of the Cuban people

Author: Ventura de Jesús | informacion@granma.cu
April 20, 2017 10:04:24

Ciénaga de Zapata.- Fidel’s example of integrity and morale, the determining factor in Cuba’s triumph at Playa Girón, was recognized during an act celebrating the 56th anniversary of this historic event which has come to symbolize the heroism of the Cuban people.

Hundreds of locals, gathered near the sands of Playa Girón, recalled the man who led revolutionary forces to an irrefutably victory over a mercenary invasion orchestrated by the U.S. government.

Fidel’s talents as military strategist and his ability to take command at crucial moments have been recognized. His physical presence at the scene of the invasion contributed to keeping morale high among the militias and was decisive to their victory in those glorious days of April 1961, stated Kenia Otaño, a young resident from Ciénaga de Zapata, speaking during the act.

Meanwhile, combatant Peña Flor Gallo, who participated in the resistance, highlighted the importance of the unity of the Cuban people to securing victory; noting that this was the first time the government had given arms to the masses (militias, workers, campesinos) to defend the sovereignty of their homeland.

Also recalled during the act was the historical importance and moral lessons of Girón, which continue to grow and prove that a people committed to fighting to defend their sovereignty cannot be defeated.

Meanwhile, a total of 56 youths received their Young Communist League membership cards, while the same number of combatants were presented with a commemorative medal in honor of the 60th anniversary of the Revolutionary Armed Forces.

The act was presided by Jorge Cuevas Ramos, a member of the Party Central Committee Secretariat; Major General Raúl Rodríguez Lobaina, head of the Central Army; as well as Teresa Rojas Monzón, first Party secretary in Matanzas, and Tania León Silveira, president of the Provisional Assembly of People’s Power.

Also in attendance were combatants who fought at Girón; Nemesia Rodríguez and her family, and José Luis Centella Gómez, Secretary General of the Communist Party of Spain.

Speaking during the act, Party Provincial Bureau member, Hidovaldo Díaz Martínez, highlighted the extraordinary impact of the triumph, noting that 56 years on Playa Girón continues to be a shining example and proof of the immoral and deceitful measures used by the United States to attack other countries.
The Pride of Having Served Cuba
Combatants of the victory at Playa Girón were recognized by younger generations for their role in defending the Cuban Revolution. Photo: Jose M. Correa

At the Havana cinema located on the corner of 23rd and 12th streets, almost half a block from where Comandante en Jefe Fidel Castro proclaimed the socialist character of the Cuban Revolution on April 16, 1961, the 56th anniversary of this historic date was celebrated

Author: Jesús Jank Curbelo | informacion@granma.cu
April 17, 2017 09:04:38

At the Havana cinema located on the corner of 23rd and 12th streets, almost half a block from where Comandante en Jefe Fidel Castro proclaimed the socialist character of the Cuban Revolution on April 16, 1961, the 56th anniversary of this historic date was celebrated. The declaration by Fidel came during the funeral acts for those who had been killed during the aerial bombardment against the air bases of Ciudad Libertad, San Antonio de los Baños and Santiago de Cuba, which served as a prelude to the invasion of Playa Girón.

According to Yuniasky Crespo, a member of the Executive Bureau of the provincial Party committee in Havana, the victory of Playa Girón demonstrated to the world what the Cuban people were capable of.

Speaking during the event held on April 16, Crespo stressed that the anniversary marked a day of honor and glory, of respect, sacrifice and commitment. The event was attended by the highest representatives of the Party and the government in the capital: Mercedes López Acea, member of the Party Political Bureau and a vice president of the Council of State; and Reinaldo García Zapata, respectively.

The 60th Anniversary of the Revolutionary Armed Forces medal was also presented to representatives of the combatants of Playa Girón, in recognition of their revolutionary efforts.

Upon receiving this distinction, we pay tribute to all those heroes who have given their lives for our independence, and in fulfillment of internationalist missions, expressed Reserves Colonel Alfonso Núñez Legué, on behalf of those presented with the medal.

We receive this medal, he added, with the pride of having served Cuba, and with the determination to defend her dignity and sovereignty.
Venezuela Will Not Surrender!
Venezuelan President Nicolás Maduro spoke during the Act of Solidarity with the sister Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, held at the Havana International Conference Center in the context of the 15th ALBA-TCP Political Council, this April 10

Author: Granma redaccion | informacion@granma.cu
April 12, 2017 10:04:23
Photo: Estudio Revolución

Venezuelan President Nicolás Maduro affirmed that “We are very happy to be in the Cuban homeland and receive, as always, all expressions of fraternity and true friendship,” speaking during the Act of Solidarity with the sister Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, held at the Havana International Conference Center in the context of the 15th ALBA-TCP Political Council, this April 10.

“The affection between Cubans and Venezuelans is true love, it is true affection, it is shared solidarity based on the truth of our history,” stated the President, who has received huge support from the Cuban people and all their mass organizations.

Maduro expressed his gratitude for the support of the Cuban youth and working class, and noted their role in reinforcing the truth.

“This ALBA Political Council continues to chart a course. Nothing has been freely given to us in the lifelong struggle for dignity, for the independence of our people,” Maduro added.

The President of the homeland of Simón Bolívar recalled that April 10 marks the anniversary of the founding of the Cuban Revolutionary Party, through which José Martí sought to take leadership and set out the doctrine, strategy and reorganize forces in the 19th century struggle for independence. He noted that this was a foundational century, in which the idea of seeking equality and the right to life of our peoples, who until then only knew colonial vassalage, emerged. The domination of European imperial powers had until this point been absolute and hegemonic.

Maduro also stressed that back then our peoples had been subjected to colonialism, racism and three centuries of domination, the extermination of indigenous populations, and the enslavement of our African ancestors.

He noted that while the nineteenth century had examples of struggle in Bolívar, Sucre, Ayacucho, and Martí, the twentieth century saw the emergence of U.S. imperialism. This was a century full of episodes of intervention, gunboat diplomacy, the political cudgel; the beginning of the affiliation of the oligarchies of our countries with the interests of the imperialist elite that has always directed the fate of the United States.

Maduro also explained that the Organization of American States (OAS) was born as the successor organization to the Pan-American Conferences that Martí denounced, in which the hegemonic policies that the United States had drawn up across our continent were expressed.

“Since the founding of the Organization of American States, as has been discussed today in the ALBA Political Council - 69 years have passed - and in 69 years the history of the OAS is a history of utmost disgrace, of the subordination of the local oligarchies of our countries to imperialist interests, in all circumstances and at all times,” he stressed.

CUBA MUST BE PROUD OF ITS EXAMPLE

Venezuela has experienced the same situation as Cubans did during the first years of the Cuban Revolution, Maduro said. During the years 1959-1962, the OAS was the setting for the preparation of attacks on Cuba, all orchestrated by the government of the United States; and thus began a process of hounding and harassment through the media and political and diplomatic campaigns. Such actions would lead the Foreign Minister of Dignity, compañero Raúl Roa García, to describe the OAS as the “Ministry of Colonies” of the United States, the Venezuelan President noted.

Cuba was not expelled from the organization before, as they hoped that through the invasion of Playa Girón, a puppet government would be installed on the island, and in that scenario the OAS would be there to recognize the legitimacy of that government and justify the call for a U.S. intervention in Cuba, Maduro explained.

But Cuba demonstrated its strength and proved that it could confront imperialism, Maduro noted. After the victory at Playa Girón, achieved in just 72 hours - an extraordinary feat that represented the first defeat of imperialism in the Americas - the prestige of Fidel and the Cuban Revolution increased for the peoples of the world, he said.

The Venezuelan President highlighted that this episode was followed by another campaign, attempting to isolate the island from the rest of the Americas, when all Latin American governments, except Mexico, broke off their relations with Cuba.

Nicolás Maduro acknowledged his great admiration of Fidel, Raúl and all the Cuban men and women who defended their dignity, as the Cuban Revolution marked a historic example of what was possible and what was necessary to ensure our countries - always underestimated by the North - could determine their own paths forward. Cuba marked an era, he added, which is why she must be proud of her example and of the spiritual, moral and political force she has imprinted on the peoples of the world.

Maduro also indicated that the strength of ALBA is the force of all, and that with 13 years of the practical implementation of the word solidarity, of demonstrating the difficulties and possibilities of the concept of cooperation, the Alliance has managed to forge its own paths.

While the 69-year history of the OAS has been marked by the pain and blood of invasions and coups d’état, in just 13 years ALBA is marked by the marvelous strength of solidarity and unity in action and practice.

The President of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela offered the example of the more than four million Latin Americans and Caribbeans who have been taught to read and write over the last decade, the further four million who with the support of Cuban medicine had their eyesight restored through Mission Miracle, as well as the more than 50,000 doctors trained in Cuba and currently offering services across Latin America and the Caribbean. He noted the creation of PetroCaribe, which has ensured energy stability for all ALBA countries.

Since its founding, ALBA has been a collective creation and invention process, representing a true encounter of the peoples, rather than a mere skein of protocol relations. Thirteen years since its creation, ALBA has the strength to tell all those seeking to homogenize our continent that they have been and will be unable to, Maduro stressed.

Likewise, he emphasized that Venezuela has been in imperialist sights for a long time, ever since the arrival of the Bolivarian Revolution and the emergence of a leadership that changed everything. In 18 years the Bolivarian Revolution has endured attacks of all kinds, and Maduro recalled that April 11 marks another anniversary of the unsuccessful coup d’état against Comandante Hugo Chávez. He stressed that Venezuela is currently facing a new coup attempt, “led by the oligarchic right, subordinated to the interests of the United States,” but that it is winning.

Of all the blows that have been contained, endured and overcome in Venezuela, Maduro acknowledged that the hardest was the physical loss of Comandante Hugo Chávez, the father of the young Bolivarian Revolution.

He referred to the recent passing of Fidel Castro, “the father of the Cuban Revolution, the father of Latin American revolutionaries,” pointing to the fact that he had the time to achieve so much during his life, although his work was never done.

Maduro recalled that one of the last orders he received from Comandante Hugo Chávez was to explore the possibility of a rapprochement with the U.S. government during Obama’s final term, but that the vision that prevailed in the State Department was to continue to work to overthrow Venezuela’s revolutionary government.

Later, on March 9, 2015, Obama signed the infamous executive order declaring Venezuela a threat to the security of the United States, and opening the doors to an interventionist escapade by the imperialist elite at any moment.

Maduro noted that a more dangerous situation currently exists in the United States, threatening the peace of the peoples of the world - a scenario of reconfiguration and renewal of power. He reiterated that the main decision-making agencies of the United States’ political, industrial, and military apparatus are now in the hands of extremists.

The President addressed the recent decision to bomb the sister Syrian Arab Republic, in disregard of the UN Security Council and international law, and with disastrous results, an example of the kinds of decisions that are being taken by the U.S. ruling class today. He argued that this represents a call to reflect and be on the alert.

“The recent alliance of a group of right wing, neoliberal, very unsuccessful, governments against Venezuela; the recent internal onslaught of the Venezuelan right, which has taken the path of violence, of coup plotting, of an assault on power, represents the new extremist trends that direct, rule and make decisions in the United States,” Maduro added.

Likewise, the Venezuelan President assured that he continues to call for dialogue with different opposition factions, but the truth is that Washington has issued orders of zero dialogue, and to prepare the ground for foreign intervention.

“The only way to achieve peace is through words, dialogue, sincere debate, the search for reason, the search for common ground,” he stressed.

Maduro also recalled the example of Fidel: “Who remembers the name of a foreign minister or a president of a government that has attacked Cuba, or who expelled Cuba from the OAS at the time? Who remembers? And who remembers the name of Fidel Castro Ruz and revolutionary Cuba? The whole world. That is our history, that is our greatness.”

The President also thanked Cuba for the support of its collaborators across Venezuela; for their role in saving lives, in literacy, culture and sport. He expressed gratitude for the training of Venezuelan professionals during all these years: “As Evo says, Cuba is the global champion of solidarity in Our America and the world.”

Likewise, Maduro recognized the importance of real Latin American unity, for example in the creation of the ALBA Bank, which “must grow in a constant acceleration of projects and investments. We have to take the lead in the comprehensive development of our region.”

Meanwhile, he noted that the post-oil era has already begun in Venezuela. He recalled that the country has been dependent on oil for over 100 years, but explained that the economy is now moving forward, and is “not only domestically diversified, but integrated throughout our region in a network of investment, trade, technological development.”

Finally, Maduro was emphatic in pointing out that it will not be the OAS or the pro-imperialist right that cuts short the victorious path of the Bolivarian Revolution - a revolution born of history and with a single destiny: victory, victory, and victory!
Sudanese Military Official Visits Wounded Soldiers in UAE Hospitals
Sudanese military official visits wounded soldiers at treated Sheikh Zayed Military Hospital in Abu Dhabi on 20 April 2017 (ST Photo)

April 20, 2017 (KHARTOUM) - The Sudanese military attaché in Abu Dhabi Thursday visited the Sudanese soldiers wounded during the military operations in Yemen treated at the Sheikh Zayed Military Hospital in Abu Dhabi.

Several thousands of the Sudanese army troops and militiamen are taking part in the Saudi-led military operations in Yemen. But, Khartoum used to not communicate on the human causalities.

Earlier this week, for the first time the army admitted the death of five soldiers in Yemen. Also, military sources disclosed to Sudan Tribune the transfer of 22 wounded soldiers to the Emirates hospitals where they are receiving medical treatment.

In a press statement released Thursday evening, the Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) Spokesperson Ahmed Khalifa al-Shami, the Sudanese military attaché to the united Arab Emirates (UAE) and Saudi Arabia visited the wounded soldiers at the Sheikh Zayed Military Hospital in Abu Dhabi.

The visit took place in the presence of Col. Nasser Al-Nuaimi, Commander of the UAE Armed Forces Medical Services, Col. Dr Sarhan Al-Nayadi, Director of Zayed Military Hospital and a number of medical officers and staff, Al-Shami said.

"The visit was welcomed by the UAE side and left a good impact on the wounded soldiers," he further added.

He pointed that Sudan’s Ambassador to the UAE, Mohammed al-Karib, visited the Sudanese wounded soldiers earlier and “has been assured that the wounded soldiers are receiving the best medical care”.

Saudi Arabia and allied Sunni Muslim countries began a military campaign in March 2015 to prevent the Yemeni Houthis Shiites and forces loyal to ex-president Ali Abdullah Saleh taking control of the whole country.

The Sunnite coalition forces expelled the Iran-backed fighters from the southern port city of Aden last summer but the Houthis continue to hold several areas including the capital, Sanaa.

Over 10,000 Yemenis have been killed in the war.

(ST)
Sudan Welcomes U.S. Oil Investors
Sudan's Oil and Gas Minister Mohamed Zayed Awad (ST Photo)

April 19, 2017 (KHARTOUM) – Sudan’s Oil and Gaz Minister Mohamed Zayed Awad has welcomed U.S. investors looking for a way to take part in the oil industry in Sudan and pledged to provide all the needed facilities.

Awad made his remarks in a statement released after a meeting with Peter S. Watson, the head of Capital Partner Trading, a company looking for investment opportunities for American firms.

Watson visit to Sudan comes as different sources expect the definitive removal of economic embargo on Sudan next July.

The minister “stressed Sudan’s readiness to cooperate with U.S. companies working in the field of oil and gas”, and welcome the desire of the American side to discuss opportunities for investment in the Sudanese oil sector,” said a statement extended to Sudan Tribune.

Awad further pointed that the presence of American oil companies would allow benefiting from the U.S. technology and expertise in the field of oil and gas.

The imposition of sanctions on Sudan in 1997 had forced American companies like Chevron to quit definitively the country and abandon its exploration and exploitation works in Blocks 1 and 2 in Western Upper Nile/Unity region for the Chinese-controlled GNPOC consortium.

The statement further said an “American delegation from LUKOIL company would visit Sudan on 16-17 May for talks on oil investments”.

LUKOIL is a Russian oil company with an important presence in the U.S. It operates in 35 countries including Egypt, Iraq, Nigeria and Cameroon.

(ST)
Arab Fund, Sudan Sign $200 Million Loan to Finance New Power Plant
Alfula Crude Oil and Natural Gas-fired Power Plant, Sudan (Lahmeyer Photo)

April 18, 2017 (KHARTOUM) - Sudan and the Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development signed a $ 200 million loan agreement to build a 350-megawatt power station in the suburb of Al-Baquir, south of Khartoum.

According to a statement by the Arab Fund on Tuesday, the loan signing ceremony took place in the Moroccan capital of Rabat on the sidelines of the annual meetings of the Arab financial institutions.

The crude oil-fired power plant will generate 350 MW of electricity with a transformer station that uses a simple-cycle mode. However, the plant will operate with the natural gas after the construction of a pipeline transporting the imported gas through one of the ports of the country.

The loan repayment period is 30 years, with a grace period of seven years and an annual interest of 2%.

The new power plant is expected to contribute to solving the problem of power transmission bottlenecks in Al-Baqair and Soba industrial zones. The region is one of the high load density areas of the national electricity transmission network.

Sudan plans to add 4055 megawatts of electricity by 2020, through a plan to raise hydroelectric power generation from 1500 MWh per year to 2000 MWh per year, and thermal power production from 900 MW to 3,555 MW.

(ST)
Sudan Investment Flows Reach $4.1 billion in 2016: Report
King Salman bin Abdulaziz and President Bashir witness the signing of bilateral financial agreements in Riyadh on 3 Nov 2015 (Photo SPA)

April 18, 2017 (KHARTOUM) - Sudan’s investment report has revealed that 2016 investment flows reached $4,1 billion.

The annual investment report, which will be released within few days, said that 2604 investment projects have been licensed in the agricultural, industrial and services sectors in 2016, pointing the size of flows reached $4,1 billion.

According to the official news agency SUNA, the agricultural projects amounted to 668 while the industrial projects reached 811 and the services projects reached 993.

The report mentions that 46,765 job opportunities will be created from these projects, pointing that investment share in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has increased by $3,2 billion in the three sectors.

It pointed that the exports of investment projects during the year 2016 reached 4.3 billion dollars, indicating that investment projects contributed to the implementation of the state’s economic policy.

Last February, investment Minister Mudathir Abdel-Ghani said Sudan has offered 220 investment projects to achieve the Arab food security, pointing that Arab agricultural and livestock investment represents 85% of the total foreign investment in the two sectors.

He stressed that foreign investment in agriculture and livestock has risen to $13 billion, pointing it created 446,000 job opportunity in the agricultural sector.

Sudan’s economy was hit hard since the southern part of the country declared independence in July 2011, taking with it about 75% of the country’s oil output.

(ST)
Opposition Alliance Renews Calls on AUHIP for Meeting on Sudan Peace Process
Sudanese government and SPLM-N delegations meet in presence of the Chief Mediator Thabo Mbeki on 14 August 2016 (ST Photo)

April 18, 2017 (KHARTOUM) - The opposition alliance Sudan Call Tuesday has called on the African Union mediators to meet them to discuss the way forward on the peace process.

The call comes after a visit of the African Union High-Level Implementation Panel (AUHIP) chief Thabo Mbeki to Khartoum from 7 to 9 April where he met with the Sudanese government officials and National Umma Party (NUD) leader Sadiq al-Mahdi.

“As President Mbeki has been to Khartoum twice in recent months for meetings with the Government of Sudan, it is only fair that he should also meet the Sudan Call so that he is fully informed of its joint position before he briefs the African Union Peace and Security Council,” said the statement.

While in Khartoum, Mbeki said the government is committed to the roadmap and the comprehensive implementation of the roadmap, adding he would convene a meeting with the opposition in Addis Ababa to discuss the matter before to convene a meeting between them and the Sudanese government led dialogue mechanism.

However, in a statement issued after his visit on 10 April, he indicated that the AUHIP has proposed to hold a meeting between the National Dialogue High Implementation Committee and the Sudan Call forces “to discuss the implementation of the dialogue outcomes, including the composition of the committee”.

“The Sudan Call does not concur with some of the points mentioned in the AU’s statement on 10 April 2017 and would welcome the chance to discuss these with the Panel,” said a statement signed by the two factions of the Sudan Revolutionary Front (SRF), NUP, Civil Society Initiative and the Sudan Call Parties inside Sudan.

“Sudan Call leaders, therefore, renew their request to meet the AUHIP as soon as possible so that the views of all parties are taken into account in the Panel’s deliberations on the way forward,” stressed the statement.

On 11 April, the Sudan Call Parties criticised the AUHIP statement saying it only expressed “the desire of the regime to hold a distorted dialogue on the basis of internal dialogue which we had rejected”.

The joint statement says the opposition groups are committed to the Road Map Agreement, adding they are ready to implement it on the basis of the understandings it sought from the Panel in its letter to President Mbeki of 22 July 2016.

“The Sudan Call made clear in this letter and in its subsequent press statement of 8 August 2016 that it would only be willing to take part in a national constitutional dialogue if a satisfactory agreement could be reached with the Government of Sudan on how to end the war, deliver humanitarian relief to the war affected populations, establish a framework for conducting a genuine dialogue and create a conducive environment, including basic freedoms” said the opposition groups.

(ST)

Friday, April 21, 2017

South Sudan’s Raja Town Attack Claimed 74 Lives: Officials
April 19, 2017 (JUBA) - At least 74 people were killed when armed opposition forces allied to South Sudan rebel leader, Riek Machar attacked Raja, the Lol state administrative headquarter, last week.

Officials say three civilians and a number of government forces were wounded. Several properties were also destroyed, as the town was looted by rival forces when each side claimed to be in control.

In a statement issued Monday, Lol state information ministry commended government forces for having stood their ground when the town was attacked from three different directions.

“On behalf of the government of Lol state, we are grateful and thankful to our gallant SPLA forces of division five (5) under the command of Col. Albino Akol Mayuol. Their strong stand by repulsing and destroyed the enemy fully and control situation”, it read in part.

The armed attackers, it claimed, suffered heavy casualties during last week’s clashes.

“On the enemy side, 44 soldiers were killed in action at the barrack and 15 were killed in the attack on the state house. The total of those killed in action on enemy side is 59. On the government side, 4 soldiers were killed in action during a battle for control of the military barrack and another killed in the state house. 10 civilians were killed and 3 others wounded in the crossfire”, further noted the statement.

According to the ministry’s statement, the attacking forces launched came from three different directions and that while one group targeted the military barrack, the other aimed at the governor’s residence, whereas the third group planned to attack the market.

“The enemy size was about a battalion under command of Lt Col Mach Tap, who was a corporal in division five (5) and joined the rebels SPLM/A-IO in 2013,” the government said in its statement.

Sudan Tribune could not independently verify the authenticity of the statement from the government while the armed opposition faction remained tight-lipped on the matter.

Residents and observers told Sudan Tribune that several government officials lost their lives when the town came under attack, expressing fear that those killed on the government side could be higher than on the opposition side.

Meanwhile, the United Nations mission in South Sudan has urged the warring parties to silence guns and demonstrate responsibility as violence escalates.

(ST)
U.N Relief Chief Warns Against Continued Conflict in South Sudan
Deputy head of UN mission in South Sudan (UNMISS), Eugene Owusu

April 19, 2017 (JUBA) – South Sudan rival parties must silence the guns in order to alleviate the humanitarian suffering crisis in the young nation, the United Nations relief coordinator warned on Wednesday.

Addressing reporters in the capital, Juba, Eugene Owusu, listed several violations against humanitarian work, including the killing of 82 workers over the last three years and impediment to delivery of assistance to the displaced persons as some challenges, alongside the armed conflict in the young nation.

According to Owusu, for U.N humanitarian agencies to assist the 3.5 million people displaced by the conflict that started in 2013, “the guns have to fall silent and the cessation of hostilities must hold.”

“While humanitarians [agencies] will continue to do all that is possible to alleviate suffering, the fact remains that unless the guns fall silent, the humanitarian situation will continue to deteriorate,” he said.

At least 7.5 million of the estimated 12 million South Sudanese will need assistance in 2017, the U.N humanitarian respond plan showed.

The U.N relief chief said the new clashes in different parts of the country including Wau Shilluk in Upper Nile Region, Wau in Western Bahr El Ghazal and Kajo-Keji in Central Equatoria have triggered new waves of thousands of displaced persons and food insecurity.

STARVATION

“Food insecurity and malnutrition is a serious challenge and have reached unprecedented levels in this country,” said Owusu, adding that “hundreds of thousands of people are facing starvation and a million more are on the brink of famine across the country.”

Famine was declared in Unity State’s Mayendit and Leer countries in February. At least 100,000 people in the home region of Former First Vice President and leader of the armed SPLM in Opposition (IO), Riek Machar, could starve to death due to lack of food. UN agencies said some food was delivered in March to the area.

But in some parts of the country, however, humanitarian workers reportedly had to withdraw due to difficult and dangerous environment and humanitarian workers are “paying with their lives”.

82 aid workers, the U.N said, have been killed since December 2013, including the three humanitarian contractors killed in Wau last week.

“Aid workers are often harassed across the country and humanitarian compounds and supplies have been looted and vandalized, and most recently in Jonglei, in Kajo-Keji, Yei, Wau Shilluk and in Mayendit – all these happened between February and March,” the U.N humanitarian coordinator told reporters in Juba.

The senior U.N official, however, said these challenges were discussed by U.N and government officials to avert future harassment to aid workers, stressing that local governments have not being forthcoming in ending the violence against aid agencies.

Owusu said no amount of humanitarian assistance even if unimpeded access is granted, will end the “long suffering” South Sudanese have endured, without a political solution to the conflict.

“The humanitarian challenges that we are dealing with are the consequences of the failure of politics to reconcile differences and to address grievances. We must fix the politics, all parties must step up efforts towards the political solution to help lessen the humanitarian case-load,” he further observed.

Conflict broke out in December 2013 following months of internal wrangling in the ruling SPLM party over leadership, vision of the party, reforms and democracy. The three-year-old war has killed thousands of people and displaced 1.6 million people as refugees to neighboring countries. Also, an estimated 1.9 million others are internally displaced in the country, with about 200,000 civilians sheltering at the U.N protection of civilians’ sites situated in government-controlled towns.

(ST)
South Sudanese Pound Continues to Fall Against Dollar
April 18, 2017 (JUBA) – South Sudanese Pounds (SSP) depreciated further against the United States Dollars (USD) in the black market in the third week of April, hitting a new low.

$1 sales for 162 SSP, up from $1 to 145 SSP last week in the parallel market.

“But when you are buying from the traders [money exchange dealers], they will charge you 17,000 South Sudanese Pounds for 100 [U.S.] dollars,” said James Nhial who deals in money exchange in Customs Market, the second largest market in Juba.

South Sudan floated the fixed exchange rate in December 2015 and there is no official foreign currencies rate set by the government since then.

For the landlocked country, which depends on import for food items, the depreciation of South Sudanese Pounds against the U.S. dollar is promptly reflected in the market.

“Today, a litre and half [1.5L] of bottled mineral water has surged to 60 SSP from 40 SSP at the beginning of this month,” said Ahmed Musa, a Somalia shopkeeper in Sherikaat, a southern suburb of Juba.

However, a half liter of bottled water costs 100 SSP in hotels in Juba town, a no-go zone for most of South Sudanese.

“For those of us who are government employees, we don’t go to those hotels – those places are reserved for foreigners and top government officials,” said Ayuel, a South Sudanese government employee.

Ayuel added that the “real problem is not luxury dining in hotels but what to put on the table at home for the kids.”

A 50 kg of maize flour costs 5,500 SSP – doubling the wages paid to senior government director.

South Sudan economy depends on oil for up to 98%. The declined of oil prices and the war triggered off an economic crisis in 2015.

Some economists say inflation has now reached 900% and South Sudanese Pounds has lost more than 90% of its value since December 2015 – when the fixed exchange rate for SSP against USD was floated.

(ST)
Egypt Seeks to Establish Military Base in Eritrea
By Tesfa-Alem Tekle

April 17, 2017 (ADDIS ABABA) – The Red Sea Afar Democratic Organization (RSADO), an Eritrean opposition group, claimed on Monday that the Red Sea nation had allegedly granted Egypt green light to build a military base within the country’s territory.

Officials from the opposition group, quoting “reliable” sources in Eritrea, claimed Asmara has allowed Cairo to acquire a military base in Nora locality at the Dahlak Island for an indefinite period of time.

The agreement, RSADO further said, comes in the wake of last week’s high-level visit of the Egyptian delegation to Eritrea.

An estimated 20,000 to 30,000 Egyptian naval forces will be deployed at the planned base, officials from the group hinted.

As it had long been anticipated and if true, Egypt will be Africa’s first and third Arab country to build a military facility in the reclusive East African nation, currently under United Nations sanctions for arming and financing Al-Shabab, a terrorist group allied with al-Qaeda.

According to previous U.N reports, Eritrea has already leased its port town of Assab to Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to establish military bases to ease their coalition battle against Houthi rebels in Yemen.

Concerned by Saudi and UAE military presence in Eritrea, Ethiopia warned the two Arab nations against supporting what it said was "Asmara’s long-standing destabilising agenda against Ethiopia".

Recently, Egyptian leaders have reportedly been engaged in diplomatic efforts for regional countries including Somalia, Somaliland and Djibouti to grant them a military and commercial base in their selected soil. However, none of Cairo’s efforts were reportedly successful, prompting the opposition group to disclose this matter.

Some Ethiopian politicians argue that Egypt’s growing interest to secure military incursion in the Horn of Africa intends to contain Ethiopia’s massive hydro-power project, which Cairo fears the multi-billion dollar dam project being built along Nile River would eventually diminish historic water shares of the North African nation.

Redda Mulgeta, a member of Ethiopia’s ruling Peoples Republican Democratic Front (EPRDF), says Cairo’s motive to have a military presence in Eritrea was clear.

"Egyptian leaders’ motive to have a military base in the soil of rival Eritrea is to sabotage the construction of Ethiopia’s mega dam project by supporting Eritrea sponsored anti-Ethiopian elements and al-Qaeda-allied Somali militant group,” Mulgeta told Sudan Tribune.

"Egypt is conspiring with Eritrea to subject Ethiopia engage in proxy war with its enemy Eritrea, local armed opposition groups and further with al-Shabaab", he added.

Meanwhile, despite the various U.N reports, Eritrea has previously dismissed revelations that it has leased lands for foreign countries.

Relations between Ethiopia and Eritrea has remained odd after 1998-2000 border war, which killed an estimated over 70,000 people.

(ST)
Uganda Ends Anti-LRA Military Operation in Central African Republic
April 19, 2017 (KAMPALA) - The Ugandan army Wednesday has announced the end of pursuit operations in the Central African Republic (CAR) for the rebel Lord Resistance Army (LRA) and its wanted leader Joseph Kony, saying it has achieved its mission successfully.

“The decision to withdraw was premised on the realisation that the mission to neutralise the LRA has now been successfully achieved. The LRA’s capacity and means of making war against Uganda have been degraded,” said the spokesperson of the Ugandan Army Richard Karemire.

“Joseph Kony with less than 100 armed fighters is now weak and ineffective. He no longer poses any significant threat to Uganda’s security and Northern Uganda in particular,” he further said.

On 29 March 2017, the United States Africa Command (AFRICOM) announced the removal of the US military forces participating in the Regional Task Force against the LRA, pointing that the rebel group has been dramatically weakened.

“While its leader Joseph Kony remains in hiding, the AU-RTF has captured four of the five key LRA leaders,” said the AFRICOM which provided advice and assistance to the Ugandan troops operating under the flag of the African union.

Sudan, which was accused of supporting the Ugandan rebels, had for a long time declined to participate in the anti-LRA regional efforts. However, last year in line with a five-track engagement Khartoum allowed US military experts to inspect the areas where Kony was allegedly hiding.

The Sudanese army also last March participated for the first time in the meeting of the African Union-led Regional Cooperation Initiative for the Elimination of the Lord’s Resistance Army (RCI-LRA).

While Kony remains wanted by the International Criminal Court (ICC), Key rebel commanders, Dominic Ongwen, Okot Odyambo have been killed.

The Ugandan army spokesperson said the first batch of its troops has already arrived in the country.

He further said that the UPDF operations have contributed significantly to the restoration of peace and tranquillity in big areas of the Central Africa Republic (CAR).

“The future for stability in CAR now lies on the shoulders of its Government. The UPDF as a Pan-Africanist force remains ready to support the capacity building of the Armed Forces of Central Africa (FACA) for counter-LRA operations and may also join the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilisation Mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA) under a strengthened mandate to effectively deal with LRA,” stressed the military spokesperson.

(ST)
Cairo to Host Tripartite Meeting With Ethiopia, Sudan on Renaissance Dam Impact Studies 
Menna Alaa El-Din
Thursday 20 Apr 2017

Cairo is set to host a tripartite meeting between Egypt, Sudan and Ethiopia on the Ethiopian Grand Renaissance Dam (GERD) next week to discuss initial reports by consultancy firms tasked with assessing the possible impact of the dam on downstream countries, the spokesman of the Egyptian foreign ministry told Ahram Online on Thursday.

The Egyptian irrigation ministry spokesman was not available for comment on the details of what will be discussed in the committee's meetings.

The meeting would come few days after a visit by Ethiopian Foreign Minister Workneh Gebeyehu to Egypt, where he met with Egypt's President Abdel-Fattah El-Sisi and foreign minister Sameh Shoukry to discuss bilateral relations.

Gebeyehu affirmed that his visit comes as an assurance to Egyptians that Addis Ababa would never harm the Egyptian people and their interests, in reference to Ethiopia's construction of the GERD on the River Nile.

Officials from the two countries have agreed to hold talks every two months to work on improving relations, with El-Sisi expressing hopes to the Ethiopian minister for Cairo to host a joint high committee meeting soon, with Ethiopian Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn in attendance.

In late 2016, Egypt, Sudan and Ethiopia signed the final contracts for the long-awaited impact studies with French consultancy firms BRL and Artelia, as well as British law firm Corbett, which will carry out studies on the potential impact of the on the flow of the Nile.

The studies by the French firms, expected to take 11 months from their start date in late 2016, will include the managing of water and hydroelectric resources as well as an assessment of the cross-border environmental, social and economic impact of the mega project.

Cairo has expressed concerns that the construction of the Renaissance Dam, which is more than halfway complete, could negatively affect Egypt's share of Nile water.

Addis Ababa, however, has maintained that the dam project, which Ethiopia says is vital for generating electricity, will not harm downstream countries.

http://english.ahram.org.eg/News/265318.aspx
Egypt-Sudan Committee Calls for 'Shift in Media Discourse' Between the Two Countries
Ahram Online
Thursday 20 Apr 2017

The Egypt-Sudan Political Consultation Committee released a statement on Thursday calling for a shift in media discourse after media outlets in the two countries attacked each other which nation has the right to control Egypt’s southern Halayeb and Shalateen region.

The committee has also called for the signing of a code of ethics between the press and media outlets in Egypt and Sudan to guarantee working towards mutual interests and maintaining brotherly relations.

The committee – which held a meeting in Khartoum headed by Sudan's Foreign Minister Ibrahim Ghandour and was attended by Egyptian FM Sameh Shoukry – vowed to maintain cooperation and mutual support between both countries in issues of common interest, as well as the holding of periodic meetings between the FMs of both countries to facilitate cooperation between Cairo and Khartoum.

Ghandour stressed the necessity of exchanging information between security agencies in both countries to reflect a commitment that Egypt and Sudan would not harbour groups that work against either country's interest.

Egyptian FM Shoukry met with Sudanese President Omar Al-Bashir during his visit tot Khartoum, conveying a message from Egyptian President Abdel-Fattah El-Sisi that Cairo is committed to maintaining strategic ties between the brotherly countries of the Nile Valley.

Earlier this month, Sudan's foreign ministry said a new a decision by Khartoum requiring Egyptian men between 18 and 50 to obtain entry visas to travel to Sudan is aimed at preventing "terrorists" from infiltrating the country.

While Egyptians could previously enter Sudan without a visa under a deal signed between the two countries in 2004, Sudanese nationals had to obtain visas before entering Egypt.

Last week, Sudan's FM Ghandour asked Cairo to explain Egypt’s position on the UN's Darfur Sanctions Committee, after rumours circulated that Egypt had backed in a 7 April meeting a call to maintain sanctions against Khartoum.

Cairo has denied these reports.

http://english.ahram.org.eg/News/265313.aspx
Egypt's Army Says It Has Killed Prominent Ansar Beit El-Maqdis Leader in Sinai Airstrikes
Ahram Online
Thursday 20 Apr 2017

Egypt's army said on Thursday it has killed a top leader in Sinai-based militant group Ansar Beit El-Maqdis during airstrikes in Central and North Sinai.

In an official statement, army spokesman Tamer El-Refaie said the army's air forces conducted strikes in those governorates, killing 19 militants including one of the group's top leaders.

According to the statement, the leader was the head of the group's Sharia Committee and responsible for interrogations.

The army has not publicly identified the leader, but said that 11 of those killed were members of the group's branches in Nile Delta governorates.

This is not the first time the army has announced the killing of a prominent leader in the group this month.

Earlier in April, El-Refai said that group leader Salem Salma El-Hamdeen, known as Abu Anas El-Ansari, had died from injuries sustained in an airstrike on 18 March that killed 188 militants and injured several others.

According to the army, El-Ansari was one of the group's founders and among its most important leaders in North Sinai, involved in arming and training militants in the area.

The militant group's propaganda magazine El-Nabaa mourned the death of the 40-year-old leader through an obituary.

Egypt’s army and police forces have been waging a war against Islamist insurgents in North Sinai for years, with hundreds of security personnel killed, as well as hundreds of militants killed in security campaigns.

On Wednesday, Prime Minister Sherif Ismail declared the extension of a state of emergency in some areas of North Sinai, imposing a curfew from 1am to 5am in El-Arish, and 7pm to 6am in the areas of El-Ouga, Halal Mountain, the coastal region and Rafah.

Most of the attacks against security personnel and installations in North Sinai in recent years have been claimed by Ansar Beit Al-Maqdis, which pledged allegiance to the Islamic State terrorist group in late 2014.

http://english.ahram.org.eg/News/265295.aspx
Egypt's Sisi and US Defense Secretary Mattis Discuss Boosting Military Cooperation
Ahram Online
Thursday 20 Apr 2017

Egypt's President Abdel-Fattah El-Sisi received US Defense Secretary James Mattis in Cairo on Thursday to discuss boosting military cooperation between Washington and Cairo.

Mattis arrived in Cairo for a one day visit coming from Saudi Arabia, on a tour of the region that also includes Israel, Qatar and Djibiouti.

Presidential Spokesperson Alaa Youssef said the officials discussed the special and strategic ties binding the two countries, with El-Sisi affirming Egypt's keenness to strengthen cooperation under the new administration of President Donald Trump.

The meeting was attended by Minister of Defense Sedki Sobhi, US Deputy National Security Advisor for Strategy Dina Powell and US Ambassador to Egypt Stephen Beecroft.

The Egyptian president focused on the pressing need to dry up funding for terrorism and convey a strict message to countries that support terror groups or supply them with fighters and/or arms.

Mattis expressed Washington's desire to push cooperation between the two countries to new levels in order to overcome unprecedented challenges facing the region.

On his first visit to Cairo as defense secretary, Mattis emphasised Egypt's pivotal role in the Middle East and in settling disputes in the region, as well as the country's counter-terrorism efforts.

After the meeting with Sisi, Mattis held talks with Minister of Defence Sedki Sobhi at the Ministry of Defence, where he was received by a marching band playing the US national anthem.

"We've always had an open relationship," the US official told Sobhi.

Mattis also participated in a wreath laying ceremony at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in Cairo.

The U.S. Defense Secertary's visit to Cairo is part of a tour aimed at reaffirming key US military alliances, engaging with strategic partners in the region, and discussing cooperative efforts to counter destabilising activities and defeat extremist terror organisations, according to a statement from the Pentagon.

Mattis will visit Israel after Cairo to meet Israeli President Reuben Rivlin, Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and Defence Minister Avigdor Lieberman.

On 22 April, Mattis will visit Qatar to meet with "key international leadership and continue efforts to strengthen regional security architectures," the statement added.

He will end his tour on 23 April with a trip to Djibouti to meet with President Ismail Omar Guelleh to discuss promoting regional stability.

A US Congressional delegation visited Cairo last week where they met with minister Sobhi. The delegation expressed the current US administration's full support for Egypt's war against terrorism and extremism.

Trump has said that the US "strongly condemns the terrorist attack" in Egypt on 9 April, in which a church in Alexandria and one in Tanta were hit by suicide bombers.

http://english.ahram.org.eg/News/265293.aspx
Egyptian-American Activist Aya Hegazi Returns to US Following Egypt Court Acquittal
Ahram Online
Friday 21 Apr 2017

Freed Egyptian-American activist Aya Hegazi has returned to the United States only a few days after an Egyptian court acquitted her and others of charges related to the abuse and exploitation of children, following three years of detention.

A White House official who was not authorised to discuss the case by name and requested anonymity told AP Thursday evening that Hegazi and her husband Mohamed Hassanein, an Egyptian included in the case, had arrived in the Washington area.

On Sunday, the court acquitted the seven other defendants in the case after finding them not guilty of charges of human trafficking, kidnapping and the sexual exploitation and torture of children.

Hegazi, now 30, and her husband were arrested in May 2014 over allegations that her NGO Belady Initiative, which works with street children in Cairo, was involved in child abuse and was operating without a licence.

Local and international rights groups have criticised the case, alleging a lack of evidence and complaining about the prolonged pre-trial detention.

During his April visit to the US, Egypt's President Abdel-Fattah El-Sisi said that he might be willing to give Hegazi a presidential pardon if she were convicted.

http://english.ahram.org.eg/News/265341.aspx
Eleanor Marx: Spotlight on a Socialist Feminist Pioneer
by Helen Gilbert
Freedom Socialist
RADICAL WOMEN COLUMN
April-May 2017 - Volume 38, No. 2

In Eleanor Marx: A Life (Bloomsbury Press, 2015), the Karl Marx family and the 19th century socialist movement are vividly portrayed. Eleanor Marx is revealed as an important political leader, whom Holmes credits with being the founder of socialist feminism.

Eleanor was the youngest of Karl and Jenny Marx’s three daughters. These poverty-stricken revolutionaries had been forced out of Europe for rallying opposition to monarchy and repression.

They landed in Britain, the heartland of industrial capitalism, where workers toiled 12-16 hours a day, living at the brink of starvation. It was here Karl Marx began his life’s work: the investigation into the nature of the profit system, crystallized in his opus Capital.

The Marx household was a warm, extended family where politics and literature were intensely discussed by young and old. Jenny was Karl’s great love, comrade in arms, and transcriber of his illegible manuscripts. Helen Demuth, though technically a servant, is more accurately described by Holmes as Eleanor’s co-mother and a thoroughly equal and opinionated member of the family.

While the children were small, the great philosopher worked at his table in the family’s decrepit two-room flat surrounded by domestic chaos. He was a playmate and an innovative storyteller. The daughters also had a “second father,” Frederick Engels: Marx’s political soulmate, a genial revolutionary and unwilling businessman who limited his own activism in order to financially support the Marx family. Engels’ companion Lizzie Burns, a working-class Irishwoman, led Eleanor to become a passionate supporter of the Irish freedom struggle.

In the midst of evading creditors, pawning the family’s belongings, hosting refugees from the Paris Commune, and enduring miseries of ill health, the Marx household nurtured a fun-loving, precocious girl with an instinct for justice.

The woman question. As the daughters grew, their upbringing as intelligent atheist rebels clashed with the Victorian society around them. Alone among her sisters, Eleanor embraced the Jewish heritage that her Marx grandparents had been forced to renounce. The older sisters married radical but feckless men and were soon swamped by household duties and sick and dying children.

At 18, Eleanor endeavored to strike out on her own and become self-supporting. Her mother encouraged her decision in letters that showed her own life’s burdens: “I alone understand how dearly you long for work and independence, the only two things that can help one over the sorrows and cares of present day society.”

Ultimately Eleanor scraped together a living as a translator, journalist, and researcher, while pouring her energies into labor upsurges and the international socialist movement.

She was deeply involved in strikes and day-to-day organizing. She tutored working-class leaders in basic skills and public speaking. She dodged police attacks at protests. She addressed thousands of people at public rallies. She helped form and lead the first women’s branch of the National Union of Gas Workers and General Labourers. She called on unions to organize women and demanded that male workers support equal pay.

Eleanor spoke and wrote tirelessly on the conditions of women. With her partner, Edward Aveling, she co-authored a groundbreaking essay “The Woman Question: From a Socialist Point of View”.

The authors trace women’s subjugation under patriarchy and describe female oppression in Victorian society. They call for a movement of proletarian women to fight alongside working men to overthrow capitalism. They show that equality of the sexes is needed for an effective struggle for social change.

No one immune. Holmes deals sympathetically with the sorrows and contradictions of Eleanor Marx and the Marx family.

The major tragedy of Eleanor’s life was that her partner Edward Aveling, though active in the socialist movement, was a con-man and manipulator. Many of Eleanor’s friends and comrades believed that Aveling engineered her apparent suicide at age 43. Eleanor died of poison in her bed shortly after signs she was ready to break with Aveling, a move that would have cut off his access to the inheritance she had received from Engels.

This biography reveals that, despite stunning misfortunes, Eleanor Marx embodied socialism and feminism in a way that was outstanding for generations to come. In Holmes’ words, “the dynamic pattern between philosopher father and political daughter shows itself clearly: Karl Marx was the theory; Eleanor Marx was the practice.”

Socialist feminists who read this gripping book will be rightfully proud to walk in her footsteps.

Author contact: helen.gilbert@juno.com.
Originally published as Radical Women column in the Freedom Socialist Newspaper.
Eleanor Marx in 1883 Political Biography of Karl Marx
Source: “Karl Marx I” Progress, May 1883, pp.288-294, and “Karl Marx II” Progress, June 1883, pp.362-366;
Note by transcriber. Karl Marx had died on March 17 1883;
Transcribed: by Ted Crawford.

There is no time perhaps so little fitted for writing the biography of a great man as that immediately after his death, and the task is doubly difficult when it falls to one who knew and loved him. It is impossible for me to do more at present than give the briefest sketch of my father’s life. I shall confine myself to a simple statement of facts, and I shall not even attempt an exposition of his great theories and discoveries; theories that are the very foundation of Modern Socialism — discoveries that are revolutionising the whole science of Political Economy. I hope, however, to give in a future number of Progress an analysis of my father’s chief work — “Das Kapital,” and of the truths set forth in it.

Karl Marx was born at Trier, on May 1818, of Jewish parents. His father — a man of great talent — was a lawyer, strongly imbued with French eighteenth-century ideas of religion, science, and art; his mother was the descendant of Hungarian Jews, who in the seventeenth century settled in Holland. Amongst his earliest friends and playmates were Jenny — afterwards his wife — and Edgar von Westphalen. From their father, the Baron von Westphalen — himself half a Scot — Karl Marx imbibed his first love for the “Romantic” School, and while his father read him Voltaire and Racine, Westphalen read him Homer and Shakespere. These always remained his favorite writers. At once much loved and feared by his school-fellows — loved because he was always in mischief, and feared because of his readiness in writing satirical verse and lampooning his enemies, Karl Marx passed through the usual school routine, and then proceeded to the Universities of Bonn and Berlin, where, to please his father, he for a time studied law, and to please himself he studied history and philosophy. In 1842 he was about to habilitate himself at Bonn as “Privat Dozent,” but the political movement arisen in Germany since the death of Frederick William III. in 1840, threw him into another career. The chiefs of the Rhenish Liberals — Kamphausen and Hansemann — had founded the Rhenish Gazette at Cologne, with the co-operation of Marx, whose brilliant and bold criticism of the provincial Landtag created such a sensation, that, though only twenty-four years old, he was offered the chief editorship of the paper. He accepted it, and therewith began his long struggle with all despotisms, and with Prussian despotism in particular. Of course the paper appeared under the supervision of a censor — but the poor censor found himself powerless. The Gazette invariably published all important articles, and the censor could do nothing. Then a second, a “special” one was sent from Berlin, but even this double censorship proved of no avail, and finally in 1843 the government simply suppressed the paper altogether. In the same year, 1843, Marx had married his old friend and playfellow, to whom he had been engaged for seven years, Jenny von Westphalen, and with his young wife proceeded to Paris. Here, together with Arnold Ruge, he published the Deutsche Französische Jahrbücher, in which he began the long series of his socialist writings. His first contribution was a critique on Hegel’s “Rechts-philosophie;” the second, an essay on the “Jewish Question.” When the Jahrbücher ceased to appear, Marx contributed to the journal Votwärtz, of which he is usually said to have been the editor. As a matter of fact, the editorship of this paper to which Heine, Everbeck, Engels, etc., contributed, seems to have been carried on in a somewhat erratic manner, and a really responsible editor never existed. Marx’ next publication was the “Heilige Familie” written together with Engels, a satirical critique directed against Bruno Bauer and his school of Hegelian idealists.

While devoting most of his time at this period to the study of Political Economy and of the French Revolution, Karl Marx continued to wage fierce war with the Prussian government, and as a consequence, this government demanded of M. Guizot — it is said through the agency of Alexander von Humboldt,who happened to be in Paris — Marx’ expulsion from France. With this demand Guizot bravely complied, and Marx had to leave Paris. He went to Brussels, and there in 1846 published, in French, a “Discours sur la libre échange.” Proudhon now published his “Contradictions Economiques ou Philosophie de la Misère,” and wrote to Marx that he awaited his “férule critique.” He did not wait long, for in 1847 Marx published his “ Misère de la Philosophie, reponse à la Philosophie de la Misère de M., Proudhon” and the “férule” was applied with a severity Proudhon had probably not bargained for. This same year Marx founded a German Working-Man’s Club at Brussels, and, what is of more importance, joined, together with his political friends, the “Communistic League,” The whole organisation of the league was changed by him; from a hole-and-corner conspiracy it was transformed into an organisation for the propaganda of Communist principles, and was only secret because existing circumstances made secrecy a necessity. Wherever German working-men’s clubs existed the league existed also, and it was the first socialist movement of an international character, Englishmen, Belgians, Hungarians, Poles, Scandinavians being members; it was the first organisation of the Social Democratic Party. In 1847 a Congress of the League was held in London, at which Marx and Engels assisted as delegates; and they were subsequently appointed to write the celebrated “Manifesto of the Communist Party” — first published just before the Revolution of 1848, and then translated into well nigh all European languages. This manifesto opens with a review of the existing conditions of society. It goes on to show how gradually the old feudal division of classes has disappeared, and how modern society is divided simply into two classes — that of the capitalists or bourgeois class, and that of the proletariat; of the expropriators and expropriated; of the bourgeois class possessing wealth and power and producing nothing, of the labor-class that produces wealth but possesses nothing. The bourgeoisie after using the proletariat to fight its political battles against feudalism, has used the power thus acquired to enslave the proletariat. To the charge that Communism aims at “abolishing property,” the manifesto replied that Communists aim only at abolishing the bourgeois system of property, by which already for nine-tenths or the Community property is abolished; to the accusation that Communists aim at “abolishing marriage and the family” the Manifesto answered by asking what kind of “family” and “marriage” were possible for the working men, for whom in all true meaning of the words neither exists. As to “abolishing father-land and nationality,” these are abolished for the proletariat, and, thanks to the development of industry, for the bourgeoisie also. The bourgeoisie has wrought great revolutions in history; it has revolutionised the whole system of production. Under its hands the steam-engine, the self-acting mule, the steam-hammer, the railways and ocean-steamers of our days were developed. But its most revolutionary production was the production of the proletariat, of a class whose very conditions of existence compel it to overthrow the whole actual society. The Manifesto ends with the words:

“Communists scorn to conceal their aims and views. They declare openly that their ends are only attainable through the violent overthrow of all existing conditions of society. Let the governing classes tremble at a Communist revolution. The Proletarians have nothing to lose by it but their chains. They have a world to win. Proletarians of all countries, unite!”

In the meantime Marx had continued in the Brüsseler Zeitung his attack on the Prussian government, and again the Prussian government demanded his expulsion — but in vain, until the February revolution caused a movement among the Belgian workmen, when Marx, without any ado, was expelled by the Belgian government. The provisional government of France had, however, through Flocon, invited him to return to Paris, and this invitation he accepted. In Paris he remained some time, till after the Revolution of March, 1848, when he returned to Cologne, and there founded the New Rhenish Gazette — the only paper representing the working class, and daring to defend the June insurgents of Paris. In vain did the various reactionary and Liberal papers denounce the Gazette for its licentious audacity in attacking all that is holy and defying all authority — and that, too, in a Prussian fortress! In vain did the authorities by virtue of the State of Siege suspend the paper for six weeks. It again appeared under the very eyes of the police, its reputation and circulation growing with the attacks made upon it. After the Prussian coup d'état of November, the Gazette, at the head of each number, called on the people to refuse the taxes, and to meet force by force, For this, and on account of certain articles, the paper was twice prosecuted — and acquitted. Finally after the May rising (1849) in Dresden, the Rhenish Provinces, and South Germany, the Gazette was forcibly suppressed. The last number — printed in red type — appeared on May 19th, 1849.

Marx now again returned to Paris, but a few weeks after the demonstration of June 13th, 1849, the French government gave him the choice of retiring to Brittany or leaving France. He preferred the latter, and went to London — where he continued to live for over thirty years. An attempt to bring out the New Rhenish Gazette in the form of a review, published at Hamburg, was not successful. Immediately after Napoleon’s coup d'état, Marx wrote his “18th Brumaire de Louis Bonaparte,” and in 1853 the “Revelations Concerning the Cologne Trial.” — in which he laid bare the infamous machinations of the Prussian government and police.

After the condemnation at Cologne of the members of the Communist League, Marx for a time retired from active political life, devoting himself to his economical studios at the British Museum, to contributing leading articles and correspondence to the New York Tribune, and to writing pamphlets and fly-sheets attacking the Palmerston régime, widely circulated at the time by David Urquhart.

The first fruits of his long, earnest studies in Political Economy appeared in 1859, in his “Kritik zur Politischer Economie” — a work which contains the first exposition of his Theory of Value.

During the Italian war, Marx, in the German piper Das Volk, published in London, denounced the Bonapartism that hid itself under the guise of liberal sympathy for oppressed nationalities, and the Prussian policy that under the cloak of neutrality, merely sought to fish in troubled waters. On this occasion it became necessary to attack Carl Vogt, who in the pay of the “midnight assassin” was agitating for German neutrality, nay sympathy. Infamously and deliberately calumniated by Cart Vogt, Marx replied to him and other gentlemen of his ilk in “Herr Vogt,” 1860, in which he accused Vogt of being in Napoleon’s pay. Just ten years later, in 1870, this accusation was proved to be true. The French government of National Defence published a list of the Bonapartist hirelings and under the letter V appeared: Vogt, received August,[1] 1859, 10,000:francs.” In 1867 Marx published at Hamburg his chief work “Das Kapital,”[2] to a consideration of which I shall return in the next number of Progress.

Meanwhile the condition of the working men’s movement had so far advanced that Karl Marx could think of executing a long-cherished plan — the establishment in all the more advanced countries of Europe and America of an International Working Men’s Association. A public meeting to express sympathy with Poland was held in April, 1864. This brought together the working men of various nationalities, and it was decided to found the International. This was done at, a meeting (presided over by Professor Beesley) in St. James’ Hall on September 28, 1864. A provisional general council was elected, and Marx drew up the Inaugural Address and the Provisional Rules. In this address, after an appalling picture of the misery of the working classes, even in years of so-called commercial prosperity, he tells the working men of all countries to combine, and, as nearly twenty years before in the Communist Manifesto, he concluded with the words: “Proletarians of all countries, unite!” The “Rules” stated the reasons for founding the International:

“CONSIDERING,

“That the emancipation of the working classes insist be conquered by the working classes themselves; that the struggle for the emancipation of the working classes means not a struggle for class privileges and monopolies, but for equal rights and duties, and the abolition of all class rule;

“That the economical subjection of the man of labor to the monopoliser of the means of labor, that is, the sources of life, lies at the bottom of servitude in all its forms of social misery, mental degradation, and political dependence;

“That the economical emancipation of the working classes is therefore the great end to which every political movement ought to be subordinate as a means;

“That all efforts aiming at that great end have hitherto failed from the want of solidarity between the manifold divisions of labor in each country, and front the absence of a fraternal bond of union between the working classes of different countries;

“That the emancipation of labor is neither a local nor a national, but a social problem, embracing all countries in which modern society exists, and depending for its solution on the concurrence, practical and theoretical, of the most advanced countries

“That, the present revival of the working classes in the most industrious countries of Europe, while it raises a new hope, gives solemn warning against a relapse into the old errors, and calls for the immediate combination of the still disconnected movements

“FOR THESE REASONS

“The International Working Men’s Association has been founded.”

To give, any account of Marx’ work in the International would be to write a history of the Association itself — for, while never being more than the Corresponding secretary for Germany and Russia, he was the leading spirit of all the general councils. With scarcely any exceptions the Addresses — from the Inaugural one to the last one — on the “Civil War in France “ were written by him. In This last address Marx explained the real meaning of the Commune — “that sphinx so tantalizing to the bourgeois mind.” In words as vigorous as beautiful he branded the corrupt government of “national defection that betrayed France into the hands of Prussia,” he denounced the government of such men as the forger Jules Favre, the usurer Perry, and the thrice infamous Thiers, that monstrous gnome” the “political shoe-black of the Empire.” After contrasting the horrors perpetrated by the Versaillists and the heroic devotion of the Parisian working men, dying for the preservation of the very republic of which M. Perry is now Prime Minister, Marx concludes:

“Working men’s Paris with its Commune will be for ever celebrated as the glorious harbinger of a new society. Its martyrs are enshrined in the great heart of the working class. Its exterminators’ history is already nailed to that eternal pillory from which all the prayers of their priests will not avail to redeem them.”

The fall of the Commune placed the International in an impossible position. It became necessary to remove the General Council from London to New York, and this, at Marx’ suggestion, was done by the Hague Congress in 1873. Since then the movement has taken another form; the continual intercourse between the proletarians of all countries — one of tho fruits of the International Association — has shown that, there no longer exists the necessity for a formal organisation. But whatever the form, the work is going on, must go on so long as the present conditions of society shall exist.

Since 1873 Marx had given himself up almost entirely to his work, though this had been retarded, for some years by ill-health. The M.S. of the second. volume of his chief work will be edited by his oldest, truest, and dearest friend, Frederick Engels. There are other MSS., which may also be published.

I have confined myself in strictly historical and biographical details of the MAN. Of his striking personality, his immense erudition, his wit, humour, general kindliness and ever-ready sympathy it is not for me to speak. To sum up all -

“the elements
So mix'd in him that Nature might stand up,
And say to all the world, “This was a Man!”

Eleanor Marx.

II

David Ricardo begins his great work, “Principles of Political Economy and Taxation,” with these words: “The value of a commodity, or the quantity of any other commodity for which it will exchange, depends upon the relative quantity of labor necessary for its production, and not on the greater or less compensation which is paid for that labor.” This great discovery of Ricardo’s, that there is but one real standard of value, labor, forms the starting-point of Marx’ “Das Kapital.'’ I cannot enter here into a detailed account of the way in which Marx completes, and partly corrects, Ricardo’s theory of value, and develops, out of it, a theory of that fearfully contested subject, currency, which by its clearness, simplicity, and logical force, has carried conviction even into the heads of many political economists of the ordinary stamp. I must confine myself to the mode, based upon his theory of value, by which Marx explains the origin and the continued accumulation of capital in the hands of a, thereby, privileged class.

Suppose all exchanges of commodities to be entirely fair; suppose that every buyer gets the full value in goods for his money, and that every seller receives in money the full value of the necessary labor invested in his produce. If, then, as political economists are in the habit of assuming, every producer sells that which he does not want, and buys with the money thus obtained that which he does want, but which he does not himself produce, then all things are for the best in this best of economical worlds; but the formation of Capital — this word taken, for the present, in its usual meaning — is impossible. A man may save money, or store up goods, but he cannot, as yet, use them as Capital, except perhaps by lending the money on interest. But that is,, though a very ancient, yet a very subordinate and primitive form of Capital. The making of profits is impossible on the basis supposed above.

And yet, we see every day that profits, and very large profits, are made by some people. In order to account for this, let its begin by looking at the form of the transaction which produces profits. Hitherto we have dealt with independent producers, who, under a system of social division of labor, sell what they do not want, and buy what they do want for their own use. But now the producer appears as a man who enters the market, not with produce, but with money, and who buys, not what he wants, but what he does not want for his own use. He buys, in one word, in order to re-sell what he has bought. But to buy 20 tons of pig-iron, or 10 bales of cotton for £100, and to re-sell them for £100 would be an absurdity. And indeed we find our businessman does not commit such an absurdity. He buys his commodities, say for £100, and re-sells them, on an average, say for £110. But how is this possible?’ We still assume that all commodities are bought and sold at this full labor-valve. Then no profit can come out of any amount of such buying and selling. A change in the value of the commodity bought and hold, for instance, the rise in cotton in consequence of the American Civil War, may explain how profits arise in a few solitary instances. But commodities do not always rise in value, they generally fluctuate about a certain average value and price. What is gained now is lost hereafter. With our supposition of equal exchanges, profits are impossible.

Very well. Suppose now, exchanges were not equal — suppose every seller to be able to sell his article 10 per cent. above its real value. Then, what every one of them gains as a seller, he loses again as a buyer. Again, let every buyer buy at 10 per cont. below the value of the article bought. What he gains as a buyer, leaves his hands again as soon as he turns seller.

Suppose, finally, profits to be the result of cheating. I sell you a ton of iron for £5, while it is worth no more than £3. In that case, I am £2 richer, and you are £2 poorer. Before the bargain you had £5 in money and I had £3 in value of iron — together £8. After the bargain you hold £3 in iron and I £5 in gold — together again £8. Valve has changed hands, but it has not been created, and profits to be real must be value newly created. It is self-evident that the totality of the capitalist class of a country cannot cheat itself.

Thus if equivalents are exchanged, profits are impossible; and if non-equivalents are exchanged, profits are equally impossible. Yet they exist. How is this economical enigma to be solved?

Now it is evident that the increase or value which appears in the re-sale as profits, and which transforms money into capital, cannot arise from that money, for both in the buying and in the selling the money merely represents the value of the commodity bought and sold (we assume here again all exchanges to be exchanges of equivalents). Nor can it arise from the value of the commodity which is supposed to be bought and sold at its full value, neither more nor less. The increase of value can, therefore, arise only out of the actual use of the commodity in question. But how can new value arise from the use, the consumption of a commodity? This would only be possible if our businessmen had the good luck to find in the market a commodity endowed with the special quality that its consumption would be, ipso facto, a creation of wealth.

And that commodity exists in the market. That commodity is called by economists Labor but Marx, more correctly, calls it Labor-power, and this expression I shall use here.

The existence of Labor-power as a commodity in the market, pre-supposes that it is sold by its owner, and, therefore, that the latter is a free agent, who sells his Labor-power to another free agent, both dealing with each other voluntarily and on an equal footing. It presupposes, moreover, that the sale is for a limited time only, as otherwise the seller, from a free agent, would become a slave. And, finally, it presupposes that the owner of the labor-power, the future laborer, is not in a position to sell commodities, the produce of his own labor, but that he is compelled to sell, instead, his capacity to labor. Thus, our businessman lives in a society where he meets the free laborer in the market — free not only to dispose as a free agent of his labor-power, but free also from the possession of all means by which he himself could transform the labor-power into actual labor, into work. A free man — but free also from the ownership of victuals, of raw material, and of tools, unless, perhaps, the simplest and cheapest.

That our two “free agents” are enabled to meet each other in the market, is evidently not a phenomenon produced by simple nature. It is the result of a long historical process, the result of many previous revolutions of society. And, indeed, it is only since the latter half of the fifteenth century that we find the mass of the population being gradually turned into such “free” sellers of their own labor-power.

Now labor-power, as a saleable commodity, has a value and a price like other commodities. Its value is determined, as in all other cases, by the labor necessary for its production, and therefore its reproduction. The value of labor-power is the value of the necessaries of life required to keep the laborer in a state fit for his work, and, as he is subject, to natural decay and death, to reproduce and to continue the race of sellers of labor-power. The extent and composition of these necessaries of life varying very much for different epochs and countries, are yet more or less fixed for a single country, and a given period. The standard of life established there among the working class settles it.

Let us now see how our business-man consumes the labor-power he has bought. Suppose the work to be done is cotton-spinning. The hired laborer is introduced into the factory and there finds all the requisites for his work: cotton in the state of preparation which renders it fit for spinning into yarn, machinery, etc. Suppose the normal production of’ a spinier per hour to be one and two-third pounds of yarn, for which one and two-thirds pounds of cotton are required (leaving unavoidable waste out of the question). Then in six hours our spinner will turn 10 lbs. of cotton into 10 lbs. of yarn. If the value of the cotton be 1s. per lb. the 10 lbs. of yarn will represent in value of cotton 10s. Assuming the wear and tear of machinery, oil, coal, etc., during these six hours to represent a value of 2s., that will raise the value of the yarn to 12s. There remains to be known how much is added to its value by the labor of’ the spinner.

Suppose the value of labor-power for one day, that is to say the value of the necessaries of life required to maintain the laborer for one day to be 3s. Suppose, again, that this sum of necessaries, or the 3s. representing it in money, are equivalent to, or embody the labor of one worker for six hour’s. Our spinner, then, at the end of six hours work has added a value of 3s. to the yarn, so that its total value is I5s. Our businessman, now a master cotton-spinner, has in his yarn the full equivalent of his outlay: 10s. for cotton, 2s. for wear and tear, etc., 3s. for labor-power employed — total 15s. He is repaid in the value of’ his yarn for every fraction of a farthing he has advanced.

But there, is no margin for any profits. But our master cotton-spinner or would-be capitalist very soon informs us that this is not the way at all in which he understood his bargain. If six hours’ labor suffice to keep the laborer for a full day, including the night, that is no reason why the laborer should not work a whole day. He, the master, has hired the man’s labor-power for a day. He, therefore, is entitled to have a full day’s work out of him. The value of the labor-power and the value of the labor it is capable of performing may be different things. If they are, then the worker is entitled to have the first and the employer is equally entitled to pocket the second. Labor is not only the source of wealth, and of value, but it is also the source of more value than that of the labor-power required to perform that labor. And that is the very reason why the employer has hired the laborer.

Instead of discharging his workman after the six hours he makes him work say another six hours, twelve in all (we will not at present mind the Factory Acts). Then after twelve hours’ work we have the following result:

20 lbs. of cotton at 1s. £1 0 0
Wear and tear twelve hours, twice 2s 4 0
Labor added in twelve hours 6 0
Value of 20 lbs. of yarn £1 10 0
OUTLAY OF EMPLOYER:
20 lbs. of cotton, as above, £1 0 0
Wear and tear 4 0
Wages paid to spinner 3 0
Margin for profit 3s

The enigma is solved, the possibility of profits explained. Money has been transformed into capital.

The above simple transaction between employer and workman not only explains the genesis of capital, but it forms the groundwork of’ our whole system of production (called by Marx capitalist production). It forms the gist of Marx’ whole book, and is at this moment perfectly understood by the Socialists of the Continent, especially by those of Germany and Russia.

I said the 3s. were not profit, but a margin for profit. The sum thus entering the pocket of the capitalist Marx calls surplus value. It is not all profit, but it includes the employer’s profit. He has to share it with others: with the Government in the shape of rates and taxes, with the landlord for rent, with the merchant, etc. The laws that regulate this repartition will be explained in the third book (2nd volume) of “Das Kapital,'’ which, together with the second, the author has left in manuscript. It will be published in German as soon as possible.

Thus, all classes of society not composed of actual and immediate producers of wealth (and these, in England at least, are almost exclusively wages-laborers), all classes, from kings and queens to music-masters and greengrocers, live upon their respective shares of this surplus-value. In other words, they live upon the net produce of the surplus labor which the capitalist extracts from his workpeople, but for which he does not pay. It matters not whether the share of surplus-labor falling to each member of society not actually a producer is granted as a gift by Act of Parliament from the public revenue, or whether it has to be earned by performing some function not actually productive. There is no other fund out of which they can be paid, but the sum total of the surplus value created by the immediate producers, for which they are not paid.

Eleanor Marx.

1. “Vogt — il lui a été remis en Aout, 1859 ... 10,000 francs” is the literal text.

2. A second edition appeared in 1872, and a third is about to be published. Translations in French and Russian were made in the seventies, and condensations or extracts of the hook have appeared in most European languages.